Ultra-Processed…Ultra-Problematic (Pt. 1)

Kind Bar info from: https://www.kindsnacks.com/protein-bars/crunchy-peanut-butter-M20800.html, Nutritional Vector information from: https://burnfatnotsugar.com/MacroCalc.html
On the left is a 6 carbon carbohydrate, glucose, and on the right is a 16 carbon fat, palmitic acid. Circled in red are examples of the high energy C-C and C-H. Images taken from: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-structure-of-glucose
The amino acid, leucine. The defining features of amino acids (compared to carbohydrates and fats) are the carboxyl group (COOH) and amine group (NH2) linked to the same carbon (alpha carbon). Image from: https://www.vectorstock.com/royalty-free-vector/leucine-skeletal-formula-vector-26783976
A good estimation of where different foods fit on the P:E . Notice the distinction between the Standard American Diet and the typical Hunter-Gatherer diet. This image was taken from Dr. Naiman’s P:E ratio pg. 117.
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  3. Gerliani, Natela, et al. “Extraction of Protein and Carbohydrates from Soybean Meal Using Acidic and Alkaline Solutions Produced by Electro‐Activation.” Food Science & Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 2, 2020, pp. 1125–1138., doi:10.1002/fsn3.1399.
  4. “What Happens to Your Food After You Eat It?” North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN), www.gikids.org/files/documents/resources/Eat-E.pdf.
  5. Miesfeld, Roger L., and Megan M. McEvoy. Biochemistry. W.W. Norton & Company, 2017.
  6. Naiman, Ted, and William Shewfelt. The P:E Diet: Leverage You Biology.
  7. Schwarz, J M, et al. “Short-Term Alterations in Carbohydrate Energy Intake in Humans. Striking Effects on Hepatic Glucose Production, De Novo Lipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Whole-Body Fuel Selection.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, no. 6, 1995, pp. 2735–2743., doi:10.1172/jci118342.
  8. Araújo, Joana, et al. “Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016.” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 17, no. 1, 2019, pp. 46–52., doi:10.1089/met.2018.0105.



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Adam Plotkin

Adam Plotkin


Post-Baccalaureate research assistant in the Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Lab at the National Institutes of Health